Member list

Current members

Lan-Wei Yeh
Ecology and evolution of Taiwanese Carabus ground beetles.
Chung-Hsin Huang
Master topic: Flucuating Asymmetry and Developmental Asymmetry of Cyclommatus mniszechi; PhD topic: Evolution of Mandible Morphology and Fighting Behavior in Stag Beetles
Ying-Yuan Lo
Leocris Batucan Jr.
New Species and DNA Barcoding of the Mayfly (Ephemeroptera) in Mt. Malindang, Mindanao, Philippines.
Chun-Yu Lin
Parasitoid Wasps of Damselflies; Phylogenetics and Evolution Histories of Treehoppers
Hsu-Yi Lin
Fighting Behavior of Odontolabis siva parryi Stag Beetles
Sheng Lin
Transcriptome Profiling Psolodesmus mandarinus mandarinus Damselfly
Pei-Hsuan Chang
Thermal Adaptation and Habitat Preference of Psolodesmus mandarinus Damselfly
Min-Chen Lin
Disruptive Camauflage of Colors of Pachyrhynchus Weevils.
Masahiko Tanahashi
Ecology and Evolution of Pachyrhynchus Weevils.
Su-Ping Lin
Symbiotic Yeasts of Stag Beetles
Jun-Ying Wang
Conservation of Mortonagrion hirosei Damselflies
Chin-Han Hsiao
Fighting Behavior of Rhaetulus crenatus Stag Beetles
Wei-Zhe Tseng
Systematics and Evolution of Weevils
Cheng-Tse Yung
Maternal Gift of Pachyrhynchus sarcitis Weevils

Past members

Jo-Fan Wang
Territorial behavior, trait evolution.
Yu-Hsun Hsu
Mating strategy, behavioural ecology, molecular ecology, population genetics, molecular phylogenetics, biostatistics.
Yi-Shou Yang
Reproductive Isolation of Psolodesmus mandarinus subspecies.
Wataru Kojima
Evolution of male sexual traits in Taiwanese scarab beetles.
Zhen-Yi Chen
Fighting behavior and reproductive strategy of stag beetles.
Teng-Yu Liu
Fighting behaviour and life history observation of a stag beetle Rhaetulus crenatus crenatus.
Princess Angelie S. Casas
Insect Diversity and Evolution
Lu-Yi Wang
Defense Mechanism of Pachyrhynchus weevils.
Hui-Yun Tseng
Aposematic coloration, island biogeography.
Yu-Jen Yu
Variation and Adaptation of wings.
Yen-Ting Chen
Systematics and evolution of insects.
Yun-Chieh Cheng
Damselfly larval diet, molecular evolution.
Tai-Chia Chiang
The effect of aposematic colors of Pachyrhynchus weevils on avian predators.
Yong-Chao Su
Behavioral ecology, sociobiology, population genetics, and molecular phylogenetics.
I-Ting Hsiao
Variation of genitalia in Euphaea amphicyana.
Jyun-Huei Huang
The fighting behavior of a stag beetle, Rhaetulus crenatus.
Shi-Ting Wu
Membracis Phyllotropis.
Chiao-Wei Lin
The fighting behavior of a stag beetle, Rhaetulus crenatus.
Wei-Liang Xiao
Variation of wing veins in Euphaea amphicyana.
Hung-Nien Chen
1. The effect of typhoon on survivalship of Matrona cyanoptera. 2. Modes of phenotypic variation in Euphaea amphicyana.
Chu-Yen Cheng
Phylogeography of a Philippine's treehopper, Leptocentrus reponens.
Che-Yu Kuan
Variation of mandibles in stag beetles.
Yat-Hung Lee
Speciation of Euphaea damselflies.
Ming-Yu Chen
Phylogeography and population history of the treehoppers, Centrochares horifficus from the Philippines Archipelago.
Shao-Chang Huang
Visual Communication of Matrona cyanoptera
Jen-Pan Huang
Population Genetics and Phylogeographic Analyses of Formosan Damselfly, Euphaea Formosa (Insecta: Odonata: Euphaeidae) from Taiwan
Wei-Yun Chen
Molecular and Phylogenetic Characterization of Endosymbiotic Bacteria of the Froghopper, Okiscarta uchidae (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cercopidae)

Visiting scholars and students

Jillian del Sol
Behavioral Ecology; Mating System Ecology; Weapon Ecology and Evolution; Evolutionary Biology
Ian Dela Cruz
New Species and DNA Barcoding of the Stonefly (Plecoptera) in Mt. Malindang, Mindanao, Philippines.
Shinya Komata
Ecology & Evolution of Wing Polymorphism in a Mimetic Swallowtail Butterfly, Papilio memnon.
Vanitha Williams
Predatory potential of waterbug, Diplonychus rusticus and dragonfly, Diplacodes trivialis on mosquito larvae.
Marina Vilenica
Dragonfly composition (Insecta, Odonata) in wetland area of Turopolje region, Croatia
Klaas-Douwe 'KD' B. Dijkstra
History, diversity and identification of dragonflies and damselflies (Odonata).
Erin McCullough
" Diversification of weapon form: aerodynamic costs of beetle horns.
Ashley E. King
Intrasexual combat and intersexual antagonistic co-evolution in horned beetles.

Ying-Yuan Lo

Ying-Yuan Lo


PhD Student 2015- ; Research fellow of Endemic Species Research Institute

Species: Oxyopidae



Systematics, Behavior and Evolution of Lynx Spiders.


Oxyopes sertatus

Oxyopes sertatus.

Research Topics
1. A New Record and Re-description of Oxyopes sushilae (Araneae, Oxyopidae) in Taiwan

Oxyopes sushilae Tikader, 1965 is recorded in Taiwan for the first time. Both male and female of the species are re-described and illustrated here based on the specimens collected in Taoyuan, Miaoli, Nantou, Yunlin and Kaoshiung. The species can be recognized by a sclerotized and shield-like shaped epigynum, and the extension of a conspicuous basal-lateral hamulus process on cymbium of palp organ. This species is mainly distributed from low to medium altitudes of western Taiwan.

2. Species delimitation and taxonomic revision of Oxyopes (Araneae: Oxyopidae) of Taiwan, with description of two new species.

This study revised the spider genus Oxyopes Latreille, 1804 in Taiwan and delineated the species boundaries based on morphological and molecular characters. A total of seven Oxyopes spiders were recognized, including two newly described species, O. hasta sp. nov. and O. taiwanensis sp. nov. Oxyopes fujianicus Song & Zhu 1993 from Yilan County, Nantou County, and Kaohsuing City, and O. striagatus Song 1999 from New Taipei City, Taichung City, Nantou County, and Kaohsiung City were recorded for the first time in Taiwan. An identification key and a distributional map of Taiwanese Oxyopes species were provided. Partial COI sequences were obtained for molecular phylogenetic and species delimitation analyses. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenies, and DNA barcoding gap analysis supported morphologically defined species. However, molecular species delimitation based on Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD), PID (Liberal), and generalized mixed Yule coalescent (GMYC) were incongruent in species assignment. The results showed that the interspecific genetic divergence between O. sertatus and O. taiwanensis was relatively low (1.28 ± 0.43%), and the intraspecific genetic divergence of O. striagatus was relatively high (1.69 ± 0.35%). Ecological data, additional samples and genetic loci are required to further examine the level of reproductive isolation and patterns of population genetic structure in Taiwanese Oxyopes.

Oxyopes macilentus

Oxyopes macilentus.

Taiwanese Oxyopes phylogeny

Taiwanese Oxyopes phylogeny.

3. Molecular Phylogeny of Lynx Spiders (Araneae: Oxyopidae)

Lynx spiders are small to medium body size and non-web-building spiders that comprise nine genera and 446 species. They are widely distributed around the world and mainly inhabit grasslands, bushes or tree canopies. Lynx spiders possess several unique characters that are distinct from other spider families, including the arrangement of eyes and the extremely developed long black spines on the legs. Previous studies supported the monophyly of the Oxyopids. However, the relationships among genera in this family are still unclear. This study aims to investigate the phylogeny of the Oxyopidae using mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (28S and H3) DNA sequences, and combined with geometric morphometric analysis of carapace and the arrangement of eyes. The results showed that lynx spiders contained four major clades: (1) Peucetia + Tapinillus; (2) Oxyopes; (3) Hamadruas; (4) Hamataliwa + Tapponia, which were also supported body size and egg guarding behavior. Moreover, the results doe not support Hamataliwa and Tapponia as two monophyletic genera. The morphometric analysis of carapace found obvious differences among some genera, including Hamataliwa and Tapponia. This is the first study to examine the phylogenetic relationships of the Oxyopidae by combining molecular and morphological characters. The results do not support the hypothesis from previous studies that the Oxyopidae is divided into three major groups, and show that the evolutionary relationships among some genera are unresolved.

Oxyopes phylogeny

Phylogeny of Oxyopidae

4. Urbanization Leads to Population Fragmentation and Decrease of Genetic Diversity in Oxyopes sertatus

Urban development is one of the most obvious, irreversible and rapid land use changes in recent years. It not only affects the ecological environment, but also creates a new selection pressure for organisms and is one of the main sources of threats to biodiversity. Limited suitable habitats to water sources and green belts are the main struggle for wildlife that lives in urban areas. It could result in small populations, restriction of population connectivity and increase of regional extinction risk. Two alternative models have been proposed in previous studies to represent the biological impact of urbanization- urban fragmentation model and urban facilitation model. The urban fragmentation model predicts that urban development leads to lower genetic diversity and higher genetic differentiation among populations in urban areas, and the urban facilitation model predicts the opposite. Both models were supported by previous studies, but it depends on the taxa, dispersal ability, and characters of landscape. Oxyopes sertatus is a lynx spider widely distributed in low altitude mountains and urban green spaces in Taiwan. This study collected the spiders from 17 sites in central Taiwan that contained low to higgh urbanization sites (rural-urban gradient), and analyzed COI and RAD-seq of the sampled spider populations. The results showed that no population structure can be detected among urban-rural populations. However, the genetic diversity of urban populations is significantly lower than that of non-urban populations. The differentiation index among urban populations is significantly higher than that among non-urban populations. The result generally supported urban fragmentation model in O. sertatus. We propose that the small, fragmented and isolated habitats in green space is the main factor that leads to the increase of genetic drift and reduces genetic diversity of urban populations. Genetic diversity is the foundation for wildlife to adapt to future climate and environmental changes. We urge considering the establishment and connectivity of urban green spaces in future urban planning.

RAD-seq diversity

RAD-seq diversity.

Selected Publication

Lo, Y-Y., R-C. Cheng and C-P. Lin (2021) Species delimitation and taxonomic revision of Oxyopes (Araneae: Oxyopidae) of Taiwan, with description of two new species. Zootaxa 4927(1): 058–086 February 11 2021 doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.4927.1.4

Lo, Y-Y. and C-P. Lin (2016) A new record and re-description of Oxyopes sushilae (Araneae, Oxyopidae) from Taiwan.Taiwan Journal of Biodiversity 18(2): 137–144

Lo, Y. Y. and S. H. Chen. 2010. Study on Population Genetic Structure and Phylogeography of Dolomedes raptor (Araneae, Pisauridae) in Taiwan. BioFormosa 45(2): 101-110. LINK

Lo, Y. Y., S. P. Liao, C. F. Chen, S. Y. Chen and C. N, Koh. 2012. Study on gut passage effect of Taiwan’s native avian frugivores on seed germination of Cinnamomum Burmannii. Quaterly Journal of Chinese Forestry 45(1): 55-66. LINK

Koh, C. N., Y. Y. Lo, S. H. Hsu, W. J. Cheng, Y. H. Huang and W. Hwang. 2012. Breeding Biology of the Taiwan Barbet (Megalaima nuchalis) in Yang-Ming Mountain. Journal of National Park 22(2): 1-7. LINK

Koh, C. N., S. H. Hsu, W. J. Cheng, M. H. Huang, Y. H. Huang, K. F. Yeh, C. Chang and Y. Y. Lo. 2013 Effects of arthropod abundance on nestling growth and survival of /Research/Students/Graduates/CurrentTaiwan Barbets (Megalaima nuchalis). Taiwan Journal of Biodiversity 15(3): 185-195. LINK

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